The Ultimate Guide to UCAS Applications for UK Universities

6 Jul, 2023 | University Preparation

The UCAS applications process for UK universities can seem mysterious and daunting, but with thorough preparation and a firm understanding of the process, you’ll be well on your way to achieving your goals! 

Our aim is to simplify the process, give some insights into how it works, and offer practical tips to help you navigate the application system with confidence. 

This handy guide will give you an overview of everything you need to know about UCAS applications for 2024 entry.

Please note: UCAS, the UK University and Colleges Admission Service, has announced that the structure of personal statements will be changing for the 2024/25 admissions cycle. We’ll update our blog as soon as more information on these changes is published, but you can find out what we know so far by taking a look at this article.

Choosing the Right Course and University

The first task is to choose the right course and university for you, so research the available courses and universities that align with your interests, career goals and academic abilities. If you’re not sure what they might be, try a career aptitude test to narrow it down. 

You might already know the subject areas you’re interested in, but you’ll also need to choose the specific course you want to study most. UK universities tend to have multiple degree options for the same or similar subjects. For example, English Literature versus English Language, a Modern Languages degree with a year abroad, or a Business degree with a year in industry. With so many options, you need to pick the one best-suited to you. 

Here are some things to consider when selecting a course: 

Module Choices

There is great variation in the modules for the same course across different universities. Universities offer detailed information on what you’ll be studying on their websites, so you can check for opportunities to use foreign languages on a History course, or how much hands-on lab time you’ll get on your Biochemistry course.

Teaching Style 

There are also lots of different teaching styles at university, so explore how the courses will be taught and assessed. Would you prefer large seminar groups or smaller, intimate tutorial teaching? Would you like higher contact hours with tutors, or perhaps you’re better suited to independent research?

Reputation and Location

Universities have reputations for strengths in certain subject areas, like the University of Birmingham for Chemistry, or Durham University for Theology. This can be a useful starting point when beginning your search. 

Your personal preferences and lifestyle are also important, and location is a key factor to consider. Perhaps you’d like somewhere quiet and rural, like the University of St Andrews, or if you love city-living and nightlife, take a look at universities in London or Newcastle. 

There are plenty of resources such as university websites, prospectuses, and open days where you can gather information to make an informed decision.

Understanding the UCAS Application System

The UCAS application system might seem overwhelming, but by following a few simple steps it’s easy to get started. Don’t leave applying to the last minute as there’s quite a lot to do. However, you can sign in and save your progress at any time, so you don’t need to do it all at once.

1. Registration

You’ll need to register with UCAS by going to the UCAS Hub and confirming the year you want to start your studies as an undergraduate. You can then begin your application!

2. Complete Your Details

You must complete all mandatory questions before your application can be sent to any universities. If you’re from outside the UK, you’ll need to give information about your residency status (for more clarification visit the UKCISA website). 

There are some questions specifically for UK students about personal context – these are confidential and will only be shared with universities and colleges after you have secured a place. If you’re applying with the support of a school, your application will be linked to them, and they‘ll be able to track your progress and add your references.

3. Educational History

You must enter all your qualifications from secondary education onwards, even if you’re still waiting for exam results. This lets universities know if you meet – or are likely to meet –  their entry requirements, although it’s possible to receive an offer for a course even if you don’t meet the minimum requirements.

4. Employment History

You’ll also be asked to provide details of any paid jobs, including part-time positions. Any unpaid or voluntary work shouldn’t be included here – save that for your personal statement! Don’t worry if you haven’t got any paid work experience, just leave this section blank.

5. Select Your Course Choices

You can choose a maximum of five courses (you don’t have to choose them all at once – you can come back and add more later). Some courses and universities have their own specific application requirements and protocols which you’ll need to check. These include Medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary Medicine or Veterinary Science, the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, and deferred entry if you’re planning on taking a gap year.

Writing an Effective Personal Statement

Perhaps the most important, and most daunting, aspect of UCAS applications is the Personal Statement. This is your chance to tell universities why you’d like to study with them, and evidence the skills and experience that make you a good candidate. 

This is an opportunity to talk about yourself and your passions, and to showcase your unique talents and experiences beyond your grades. Preparation and planning are key to executing an effective personal statement. It’s helpful to approach this in two parts – the practical, factual information you want to convey, and the emotional, personal parts that make you different from other candidates.

Your personal statement should answer four main questions:

  • Why are you applying?
  • Why are you interested?
  • Do your studies relate?
  • Why will you be great?

You only have 4000 characters (about two sides of A4) to make your case, so plan carefully! 

Make this simple by splitting the statement into four parts:

Section 1: Opening

Grab their attention! Begin by showing your enthusiasm for the subject and why it’s personal to you. Keep it relevant and simple, and avoid cliches.

Section 2: Personal Skills and Achievements

Don’t be afraid to be bold and talk about the achievements you’re proud of and the things that make you interesting and special. Include positions of responsibility you’ve held, and link them to the qualities that will make you successful at university and beyond.

Section 3: Work Experience and Future Plans

Universities also want to know about your relevant skills and abilities that will help you on your course and in university life. Share details of work experience or voluntary work, particularly if it’s relevant to your course. If you know what you want to do as a career, explain how this course will be the first step on your journey.

Section 4: Ending

Emphasise the points you’ve already made, and make sure you answer the question of why you should be offered a place on the course. 

Finally, remember to proofread your statement carefully! You should also ask family, friends and advisers like teachers to read through your personal statement and give feedback.

Securing Strong References

Academic references are an important part of your application. They complement and consolidate all the wonderful things you’ve said in your personal statement, and give universities some understanding of your potential as a student. 

If possible, choose someone who knows you academically and who can provide supporting information relevant to the course you want to take. If you’re currently or recently in school, ask a teacher, tutor or head teacher. If you left education a while ago, ask an employer, trainer or volunteer supervisor.

A strong recommendation letter has some key elements:

  • It must be written by your named referee in English (or Welsh if you’re applying for courses in Wales), and will be written in the reference section of the online UCAS application.
  • It should talk about your career goals and ambitions, and any relevant work experience. Discuss these things with your referee to make sure that they’re up-to-date with everything you’ve been doing.
  • It should talk about how you’ve been performing in class, and your achievement in relevant courses and modules.
  • It should explain how you’ve contributed to academic and social communities, and what you can offer the university.

If a teacher is writing your reference, they can add your predicted grades for pending qualifications. Your reference can also include circumstances that have impacted your academic work or other achievements, such as illness, personal problems, or individual needs. These can only be added with your permission. 

Make sure that you ask your reference for their support well in advance of the application deadline to ensure that they have time to write a strong reference and check any details with you.

OxBright students preparing for their UCAS applications.

Submitting Supporting Documents

You may need to submit some additional supporting documents.


For those taking IB, A-levels, AS-levels or any other standardised courses, you’ll be applying based on predicted grades, and won’t have a transcript yet. If you’re applying after receiving your qualifications, you’ll need to upload a transcript. 

For those applying with qualifications from outside of the UK education system, such as the high school diploma, you’ll need to send your transcripts and provide an explanation of the grading system and boundaries to UCAS in English.

English Language Proficiency Certificates

If English isn’t your first language, you’ll need to complete an English language proficiency test to demonstrate your ability to study a UK course. The test certificate must be uploaded to your application. Different universities and courses ask for different test scores, so make sure to check these with the relevant university admissions service.

UCAS Deadlines and Timelines for UK Universities

It’s important to keep track of UCAS deadlines to avoid missing out on applications. Making a timeline for yourself is a great way to make sure that your application is up-to-date and that you can apply early for competitive courses and universities.

The deadlines for 2024 entry are: 

  • 16th May 2023 – Undergraduate applications open for 2024 entry.
  • 12th July 2023 – Conservatoire applications open for 2024 entry.
  • 5th September 2023 – Completed undergraduate applications can be submitted to UCAS.
  • 2nd October 2023 – Closing date for conservatoires Music applications.
  • 16th October 2023 – Applications for the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, and most Medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Science courses to be submitted to UCAS by 6pm (UK time).
  • 31st January 2024 – Applications for all remaining undergraduate courses, and for most conservatoires Dance, Drama and Musical Theatre applications, to be submitted at UCAS by 6pm (UK time).

UCAS Extra and Clearing

If your first round of applications doesn’t go to plan, there are some alternative options for 2024 entry. 

You can use UCAS Extra if you’ve received decisions from all your choices and weren’t accepted, or if you have declined your current offers. UCAS Extra can be used during the application cycle by making new applications just like you did for your initial five. Once all applications have closed, this option will no longer be available. 

The process of Clearing can be used to find available university places after the main application cycle. Clearing is how universities fill any places they still have open. Clearing is open from 5th July to 17th October 2023. You can use this option if you’re applying after 30th June 2023, you didn’t receive any offers (or don’t want to accept those you have), or you didn’t meet the conditions of your offers.

Preparing for University Interviews

Some of your chosen universities might offer you an interview as part of their selection process. Interviews and auditions help university tutors compare applicants and decide who is the best fit for their course before deciding. Invitations to interview can be sent to you directly or through your UCAS application. 

Interviewers are looking for enthusiastic applicants who are independent and flexible thinkers, and who will thrive in an academic setting alongside pursuing their other interests. As with every part of this process, being prepared will make you feel a lot more confident and help you to perform under pressure.

Here are some tips to get you started:

1. Check when and how

Make sure you know when and where your interview will be, and how you plan to get there with plenty of time to spare.

2. Prepare for questions

You’ll be asked questions based on the information you submitted in your application, so make sure you know the material well. This is also your chance to ask any questions you have about the course and university as well!

3. Be informed

Show them that you know the latest stuff in your subject area, and stay up-to-date with current events.

4. Practise

Do some mock interviews with a teacher or adviser to get a sense of what the experience is like and to prepare for questions about why you want to study the course and why you are well-suited to it. Your interview might have a practical component, like analysing a historical source or solving a maths problem, so get some practice in beforehand. 

Tracking and Responding to Offers

You can sign in to your UCAS Hub at any point to track the progress of your applications. You’ll need your Personal ID and password from when you set up your account. It’s important that you keep your personal details up-to-date to avoid missing any notifications.

There are three types of offers universities make through UCAS:

  1. Conditional offer – you need to meet some requirements (usually exam results) to take up the place they’ve offered you.
  2. Unconditional offer – you have secured a place to study on that course.
  3. Unsuccessful or withdrawn – the option of studying on that course has been removed (but you could add more applications elsewhere).

Once you have decided, you can respond to your offers. There are three types of response:

  1. Firm acceptance – this is your first choice. If it’s an unconditional offer the place is yours, and if it’s a conditional offer the place is yours once you’ve met the conditions.
  2. Insurance acceptance – this is the back-up choice in case you don’t meet the conditions of your first choice. Choose somewhere with lower conditions but that you’d still be happy to go to, so that if you don’t make the conditions for your first choice, you’ll be ready to go to your second. Remember that you’ll only attend your insurance choice if you don’t meet the conditions of your first choice, and that you can’t swap these around once you’ve submitted your response.
  3. Decline – you’ll need to decline any other offers you have that you’re not going to accept.

You can only accept one firm and one insurance choice; you must decline the rest. If you don’t want to accept any of your offers, you can decline them all and apply for others through the Extra and Clearing processes.

Three OxBright students preparing to apply to UK universities.

Additional Support and Resources for UCAS Applications

UCAS applications can be daunting, but there is plenty of support and guidance out there – we hope this guide has been a good start! The UCAS website has detailed, step-by-step guides to the whole process. 

If you’d like to receive personalised, subject-specific resources to help with personal statements and university applications, sign up to our OxBright newsletter. 

There are lots of people out there who are ready to help, so reach out to them. It’s important to seek guidance from teachers, career advisers and university representatives.

The UCAS application system is an important step on your journey to studying at a UK university, and preparing for the process will allow you to approach it with confidence. 

Keep an eye out for opportunities that will boost your applications. Consider extracurricular academic activities, like an OxBright summer school course, internship, or conference to really stand out on your application. 

Reach out to OxBright for further assistance and support – we’d love to help you on your way to achieving your goals!


By Alice Spiers

Alice is an historian at St Anne’s College, Oxford, where she teaches undergraduate history (predominantly medieval history and historiographical theory). She is also a freelance writer and editor, and a research assistant at the Leverhulme Centre for Demographic Studies.

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